CVPR 2021 Best Papers Candidates

[ deep-learning  cvpr  2021  best-paper  synthetic  differetial-render  ]

This is the list of CVPR 2021 best paper candidates. Quite some of them are related to differental rendering or synthetic data.

Privacy-Preserving Image Features via Adversarial Affine Subspace Embeddings

Many computer vision systems require users to upload image features to the cloud for processing and storage. These features can be exploited to recover sensitive information about the scene or subjects, e.g., by reconstructing the appearance of the original image. To address this privacy concern, we propose a new privacy-preserving feature representation. The core idea of our work is to drop constraints from each feature descriptor by embedding it within an affine subspace containing the original feature as well as adversarial feature samples. Feature matching on the privacy-preserving representation is enabled based on the notion of subspace-to-subspace distance. We experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and its high practical relevance for the applications of visual localization and mapping as well as face authentication. Compared to the original features, our approach makes it significantly more difficult for an adversary to recover private information.

Learning Calibrated Medical Image Segmentation via Multi-Rater Agreement Modeling


Medical images are generally labeled by multiple experts before the final ground-truth labels are determined. Consensus or disagreement among experts regarding individual images reflects the gradeability and difficulty levels of the image. However, when being used for model training, only the final ground-truth label is utilized, while the critical information contained in the raw multi-rater gradings regarding the image being an easy/hard case is discarded. In this paper, we aim to take advantage of the raw multi-rater gradings to improve the deep learning model performance for the glaucoma classification task. Specifically, a multi-branch model structure is proposed to predict the most sensitive, most specifical and a balanced fused result for the input images. In order to encourage the sensitivity branch and specificity branch to generate consistent results for consensus labels and opposite results for disagreement labels, a consensus loss is proposed to constrain the output of the two branches. Meanwhile, the consistency/inconsistency between the prediction results of the two branches implies the image being an easy/hard case, which is further utilized to encourage the balanced fusion branch to concentrate more on the hard cases. Compared with models trained only with the final ground-truth labels, the proposed method using multi-rater consensus information has achieved superior performance, and it is also able to estimate the difficulty levels of individual input images when making the prediction.

Diffusion Probabilistic Models for 3D Point Cloud Generation

We present a probabilistic model for point cloud generation, which is fundamental for various 3D vision tasks such as shape completion, upsampling, synthesis and data augmentation. Inspired by the diffusion process in non-equilibrium thermodynamics, we view points in point clouds as particles in a thermodynamic system in contact with a heat bath, which diffuse from the original distribution to a noise distribution. Point cloud generation thus amounts to learning the reverse diffusion process that transforms the noise distribution to the distribution of a desired shape. Specifically, we propose to model the reverse diffusion process for point clouds as a Markov chain conditioned on certain shape latent. We derive the variational bound in closed form for training and provide implementations of the model. Experimental results demonstrate that our model achieves competitive performance in point cloud generation and auto-encoding. The code is available at \url{this https URL}.


Task Programming: Learning Data Efficient Behavior Representations

Specialized domain knowledge is often necessary to accurately annotate training sets for in-depth analysis, but can be burdensome and time-consuming to acquire from domain experts. This issue arises prominently in automated behavior analysis, in which agent movements or actions of interest are detected from video tracking data. To reduce annotation effort, we present TREBA: a method to learn annotation-sample efficient trajectory embedding for behavior analysis, based on multi-task self-supervised learning. The tasks in our method can be efficiently engineered by domain experts through a process we call “task programming”, which uses programs to explicitly encode structured knowledge from domain experts. Total domain expert effort can be reduced by exchanging data annotation time for the construction of a small number of programmed tasks. We evaluate this trade-off using data from behavioral neuroscience, in which specialized domain knowledge is used to identify behaviors. We present experimental results in three datasets across two domains: mice and fruit flies. Using embeddings from TREBA, we reduce annotation burden by up to a factor of 10 without compromising accuracy compared to state-of-the-art features. Our results thus suggest that task programming and self-supervision can be an effective way to reduce annotation effort for domain experts.


PoseAug: A Differentiable Pose Augmentation Framework for 3D Human Pose Estimation

Existing 3D human pose estimators suffer poor generalization performance to new datasets, largely due to the limited diversity of 2D-3D pose pairs in the training data. To address this problem, we present PoseAug, a new auto-augmentation framework that learns to augment the available training poses towards a greater diversity and thus improve generalization of the trained 2D-to-3D pose estimator. Specifically, PoseAug introduces a novel pose augmentor that learns to adjust various geometry factors (e.g., posture, body size, view point and position) of a pose through differentiable operations. With such differentiable capacity, the augmentor can be jointly optimized with the 3D pose estimator and take the estimation error as feedback to generate more diverse and harder poses in an online manner. Moreover, PoseAug introduces a novel part-aware Kinematic Chain Space for evaluating local joint-angle plausibility and develops a discriminative module accordingly to ensure the plausibility of the augmented poses. These elaborate designs enable PoseAug to generate more diverse yet plausible poses than existing offline augmentation methods, and thus yield better generalization of the pose estimator. PoseAug is generic and easy to be applied to various 3D pose estimators. Extensive experiments demonstrate that PoseAug brings clear improvements on both intra-scenario and cross-scenario datasets. Notably, it achieves 88.6% 3D PCK on MPI-INF-3DHP under cross-dataset evaluation setup, improving upon the previous best data augmentation based method by 9.1%. Code can be found at: this https URL.


SCANimate: Weakly Supervised Learning of Skinned Clothed Avatar Networks

We present SCANimate, an end-to-end trainable framework that takes raw 3D scans of a clothed human and turns them into an animatable avatar. These avatars are driven by pose parameters and have realistic clothing that moves and deforms naturally. SCANimate does not rely on a customized mesh template or surface mesh registration. We observe that fitting a parametric 3D body model, like SMPL, to a clothed human scan is tractable while surface registration of the body topology to the scan is often not, because clothing can deviate significantly from the body shape. We also observe that articulated transformations are invertible, resulting in geometric cycle consistency in the posed and unposed shapes. These observations lead us to a weakly supervised learning method that aligns scans into a canonical pose by disentangling articulated deformations without template-based surface registration. Furthermore, to complete missing regions in the aligned scans while modeling pose-dependent deformations, we introduce a locally pose-aware implicit function that learns to complete and model geometry with learned pose correctives. In contrast to commonly used global pose embeddings, our local pose conditioning significantly reduces long-range spurious correlations and improves generalization to unseen poses, especially when training data is limited. Our method can be applied to pose-aware appearance modeling to generate a fully textured avatar. We demonstrate our approach on various clothing types with different amounts of training data, outperforming existing solutions and other variants in terms of fidelity and generality in every setting. The code is available at this https URL.


On Self-Contact and Human Pose

People touch their face 23 times an hour, they cross their arms and legs, put their hands on their hips, etc. While many images of people contain some form of self-contact, current 3D human pose and shape (HPS) regression methods typically fail to estimate this contact. To address this, we develop new datasets and methods that significantly improve human pose estimation with self-contact. First, we create a dataset of 3D Contact Poses (3DCP) containing SMPL-X bodies fit to 3D scans as well as poses from AMASS, which we refine to ensure good contact. Second, we leverage this to create the Mimic-The-Pose (MTP) dataset of images, collected via Amazon Mechanical Turk, containing people mimicking the 3DCP poses with selfcontact. Third, we develop a novel HPS optimization method, SMPLify-XMC, that includes contact constraints and uses the known 3DCP body pose during fitting to create near ground-truth poses for MTP images. Fourth, for more image variety, we label a dataset of in-the-wild images with Discrete Self-Contact (DSC) information and use another new optimization method, SMPLify-DC, that exploits discrete contacts during pose optimization. Finally, we use our datasets during SPIN training to learn a new 3D human pose regressor, called TUCH (Towards Understanding Contact in Humans). We show that the new self-contact training data significantly improves 3D human pose estimates on withheld test data and existing datasets like 3DPW. Not only does our method improve results for self-contact poses, but it also improves accuracy for non-contact poses. The code and data are available for research purposes at this https URL.


Binary TTC: A Temporal Geofence for Autonomous Navigation

Time-to-contact (TTC), the time for an object to collide with the observer’s plane, is a powerful tool for path planning: it is potentially more informative than the depth, velocity, and acceleration of objects in the scene – even for humans. TTC presents several advantages, including requiring only a monocular, uncalibrated camera. However, regressing TTC for each pixel is not straightforward, and most existing methods make over-simplifying assumptions about the scene. We address this challenge by estimating TTC via a series of simpler, binary classifications. We predict with low latency whether the observer will collide with an obstacle within a certain time, which is often more critical than knowing exact, per-pixel TTC. For such scenarios, our method offers a temporal geofence in 6.4 ms – over 25x faster than existing methods. Our approach can also estimate per-pixel TTC with arbitrarily fine quantization (including continuous values), when the computational budget allows for it. To the best of our knowledge, our method is the first to offer TTC information (binary or coarsely quantized) at sufficiently high frame-rates for practical use.

Rethinking and Improving the Robustness of Image Style Transfer

Extensive research in neural style transfer methods has shown that the correlation between features extracted by a pre-trained VGG network has a remarkable ability to capture the visual style of an image. Surprisingly, however, this stylization quality is not robust and often degrades significantly when applied to features from more advanced and lightweight networks, such as those in the ResNet family. By performing extensive experiments with different network architectures, we find that residual connections, which represent the main architectural difference between VGG and ResNet, produce feature maps of small entropy, which are not suitable for style transfer. To improve the robustness of the ResNet architecture, we then propose a simple yet effective solution based on a softmax transformation of the feature activations that enhances their entropy. Experimental results demonstrate that this small magic can greatly improve the quality of stylization results, even for networks with random weights. This suggests that the architecture used for feature extraction is more important than the use of learned weights for the task of style transfer.

Audio-Visual Instance Discrimination with Cross-Modal Agreement

We present a self-supervised learning approach to learn audio-visual representations from video and audio. Our method uses contrastive learning for cross-modal discrimination of video from audio and vice-versa. We show that optimizing for cross-modal discrimination, rather than within-modal discrimination, is important to learn good representations from video and audio. With this simple but powerful insight, our method achieves highly competitive performance when finetuned on action recognition tasks. Furthermore, while recent work in contrastive learning defines positive and negative samples as individual instances, we generalize this definition by exploring cross-modal agreement. We group together multiple instances as positives by measuring their similarity in both the video and audio feature spaces. Cross-modal agreement creates better positive and negative sets, which allows us to calibrate visual similarities by seeking within-modal discrimination of positive instances, and achieve significant gains on downstream tasks.

Point2Skeleton: Learning Skeletal Representations from Point Clouds

We introduce Point2Skeleton, an unsupervised method to learn skeletal representations from point clouds. Existing skeletonization methods are limited to tubular shapes and the stringent requirement of watertight input, while our method aims to produce more generalized skeletal representations for complex structures and handle point clouds. Our key idea is to use the insights of the medial axis transform (MAT) to capture the intrinsic geometric and topological natures of the original input points. We first predict a set of skeletal points by learning a geometric transformation, and then analyze the connectivity of the skeletal points to form skeletal mesh structures. Extensive evaluations and comparisons show our method has superior performance and robustness. The learned skeletal representation will benefit several unsupervised tasks for point clouds, such as surface reconstruction and segmentation.


Human POSEitioning System (HPS): 3D Human Pose Estimation and Self-Localization in Large Scenes From Body-Mounted Sensors

We introduce (HPS) Human POSEitioning System, a method to recover the full 3D pose of a human registered with a 3D scan of the surrounding environment using wearable sensors. Using IMUs attached at the body limbs and a head mounted camera looking outwards, HPS fuses camera based self-localization with IMU-based human body tracking. The former provides drift-free but noisy position and orientation estimates while the latter is accurate in the short-term but subject to drift over longer periods of time. We show that our optimization-based integration exploits the benefits of the two, resulting in pose accuracy free of drift. Furthermore, we integrate 3D scene constraints into our optimization, such as foot contact with the ground, resulting in physically plausible motion. HPS complements more common third-person-based 3D pose estimation methods. It allows capturing larger recording volumes and longer periods of motion, and could be used for VR/AR applications where humans interact with the scene without requiring direct line of sight with an external camera, or to train agents that navigate and interact with the environment based on first-person visual input, like real humans. With HPS, we recorded a dataset of humans interacting with large 3D scenes (300-1000 sq.m) consisting of 7 subjects and more than 3 hours of diverse motion. The dataset, code and video will be available on the project page: this http URL .\


Where and What? Examining Interpretable Disentangled Representations

Capturing interpretable variations has long been one of the goals in disentanglement learning. However, unlike the independence assumption, interpretability has rarely been exploited to encourage disentanglement in the unsupervised setting. In this paper, we examine the interpretability of disentangled representations by investigating two questions: where to be interpreted and what to be interpreted? A latent code is easily to be interpreted if it would consistently impact a certain subarea of the resulting generated image. We thus propose to learn a spatial mask to localize the effect of each individual latent dimension. On the other hand, interpretability usually comes from latent dimensions that capture simple and basic variations in data. We thus impose a perturbation on a certain dimension of the latent code, and expect to identify the perturbation along this dimension from the generated images so that the encoding of simple variations can be enforced. Additionally, we develop an unsupervised model selection method, which accumulates perceptual distance scores along axes in the latent space. On various datasets, our models can learn high-quality disentangled representations without supervision, showing the proposed modeling of interpretability is an effective proxy for achieving unsupervised disentanglement.

Learning To Recover 3D Scene Shape From a Single Image

Despite significant progress in monocular depth estimation in the wild, recent state-of-the-art methods cannot be used to recover accurate 3D scene shape due to an unknown depth shift induced by shift-invariant reconstruction losses used in mixed-data depth prediction training, and possible unknown camera focal length. We investigate this problem in detail, and propose a two-stage framework that first predicts depth up to an unknown scale and shift from a single monocular image, and then use 3D point cloud encoders to predict the missing depth shift and focal length that allow us to recover a realistic 3D scene shape. In addition, we propose an image-level normalized regression loss and a normal-based geometry loss to enhance depth prediction models trained on mixed datasets. We test our depth model on nine unseen datasets and achieve state-of-the-art performance on zero-shot dataset generalization. Code is available at: this https URL


GIRAFFE: Representing Scenes As Compositional Generative Neural Feature Fields

Deep generative models allow for photorealistic image synthesis at high resolutions. But for many applications, this is not enough: content creation also needs to be controllable. While several recent works investigate how to disentangle underlying factors of variation in the data, most of them operate in 2D and hence ignore that our world is three-dimensional. Further, only few works consider the compositional nature of scenes. Our key hypothesis is that incorporating a compositional 3D scene representation into the generative model leads to more controllable image synthesis. Representing scenes as compositional generative neural feature fields allows us to disentangle one or multiple objects from the background as well as individual objects’ shapes and appearances while learning from unstructured and unposed image collections without any additional supervision. Combining this scene representation with a neural rendering pipeline yields a fast and realistic image synthesis model. As evidenced by our experiments, our model is able to disentangle individual objects and allows for translating and rotating them in the scene as well as changing the camera pose.


Polygonal Building Extraction by Frame Field Learning

While state of the art image segmentation models typically output segmentations in raster format, applications in geographic information systems often require vector polygons. To help bridge the gap between deep network output and the format used in downstream tasks, we add a frame field output to a deep segmentation model for extracting buildings from remote sensing images. We train a deep neural network that aligns a predicted frame field to ground truth contours. This additional objective improves segmentation quality by leveraging multi-task learning and provides structural information that later facilitates polygonization; we also introduce a polygonization algorithm that utilizes the frame field along with the raster segmentation. Our code is available at this https URL.


NeuralRecon: Real-Time Coherent 3D Reconstruction From Monocular Video

We present a novel framework named NeuralRecon for real-time 3D scene reconstruction from a monocular video. Unlike previous methods that estimate single-view depth maps separately on each key-frame and fuse them later, we propose to directly reconstruct local surfaces represented as sparse TSDF volumes for each video fragment sequentially by a neural network. A learning-based TSDF fusion module based on gated recurrent units is used to guide the network to fuse features from previous fragments. This design allows the network to capture local smoothness prior and global shape prior of 3D surfaces when sequentially reconstructing the surfaces, resulting in accurate, coherent, and real-time surface reconstruction. The experiments on ScanNet and 7-Scenes datasets show that our system outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of both accuracy and speed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first learning-based system that is able to reconstruct dense coherent 3D geometry in real-time.


CoCosNet v2: Full-Resolution Correspondence Learning for Image Translation

We present the full-resolution correspondence learning for cross-domain images, which aids image translation. We adopt a hierarchical strategy that uses the correspondence from coarse level to guide the fine levels. At each hierarchy, the correspondence can be efficiently computed via PatchMatch that iteratively leverages the matchings from the neighborhood. Within each PatchMatch iteration, the ConvGRU module is employed to refine the current correspondence considering not only the matchings of larger context but also the historic estimates. The proposed CoCosNet v2, a GRU-assisted PatchMatch approach, is fully differentiable and highly efficient. When jointly trained with image translation, full-resolution semantic correspondence can be established in an unsupervised manner, which in turn facilitates the exemplar-based image translation. Experiments on diverse translation tasks show that CoCosNet v2 performs considerably better than state-of-the-art literature on producing high-resolution images.

Less Is More: ClipBERT for Video-and-Language Learning via Sparse Sampling

The canonical approach to video-and-language learning (e.g., video question answering) dictates a neural model to learn from offline-extracted dense video features from vision models and text features from language models. These feature extractors are trained independently and usually on tasks different from the target domains, rendering these fixed features sub-optimal for downstream tasks. Moreover, due to the high computational overload of dense video features, it is often difficult (or infeasible) to plug feature extractors directly into existing approaches for easy finetuning. To provide a remedy to this dilemma, we propose a generic framework ClipBERT that enables affordable end-to-end learning for video-and-language tasks, by employing sparse sampling, where only a single or a few sparsely sampled short clips from a video are used at each training step. Experiments on text-to-video retrieval and video question answering on six datasets demonstrate that ClipBERT outperforms (or is on par with) existing methods that exploit full-length videos, suggesting that end-to-end learning with just a few sparsely sampled clips is often more accurate than using densely extracted offline features from full-length videos, proving the proverbial less-is-more principle. Videos in the datasets are from considerably different domains and lengths, ranging from 3-second generic domain GIF videos to 180-second YouTube human activity videos, showing the generalization ability of our approach. Comprehensive ablation studies and thorough analyses are provided to dissect what factors lead to this success. Our code is publicly available at this https URL


Neural Body: Implicit Neural Representations With Structured Latent Codes for Novel View Synthesis of Dynamic Humans

This paper addresses the challenge of novel view synthesis for a human performer from a very sparse set of camera views. Some recent works have shown that learning implicit neural representations of 3D scenes achieves remarkable view synthesis quality given dense input views. However, the representation learning will be ill-posed if the views are highly sparse. To solve this ill-posed problem, our key idea is to integrate observations over video frames. To this end, we propose Neural Body, a new human body representation which assumes that the learned neural representations at different frames share the same set of latent codes anchored to a deformable mesh, so that the observations across frames can be naturally integrated. The deformable mesh also provides geometric guidance for the network to learn 3D representations more efficiently. To evaluate our approach, we create a multi-view dataset named ZJU-MoCap that captures performers with complex motions. Experiments on ZJU-MoCap show that our approach outperforms prior works by a large margin in terms of novel view synthesis quality. We also demonstrate the capability of our approach to reconstruct a moving person from a monocular video on the People-Snapshot dataset. The code and dataset are available at this https URL.


Exploring Simple Siamese Representation Learning

Siamese networks have become a common structure in various recent models for unsupervised visual representation learning. These models maximize the similarity between two augmentations of one image, subject to certain conditions for avoiding collapsing solutions. In this paper, we report surprising empirical results that simple Siamese networks can learn meaningful representations even using none of the following: (i) negative sample pairs, (ii) large batches, (iii) momentum encoders. Our experiments show that collapsing solutions do exist for the loss and structure, but a stop-gradient operation plays an essential role in preventing collapsing. We provide a hypothesis on the implication of stop-gradient, and further show proof-of-concept experiments verifying it. Our “SimSiam” method achieves competitive results on ImageNet and downstream tasks. We hope this simple baseline will motivate people to rethink the roles of Siamese architectures for unsupervised representation learning. Code will be made available.

Guided Interactive Video Object Segmentation Using Reliability-Based Attention Maps

We propose a novel guided interactive segmentation (GIS) algorithm for video objects to improve the segmentation accuracy and reduce the interaction time. First, we design the reliability-based attention module to analyze the reliability of multiple annotated frames. Second, we develop the intersection-aware propagation module to propagate segmentation results to neighboring frames. Third, we introduce the GIS mechanism for a user to select unsatisfactory frames quickly with less effort. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm provides more accurate segmentation results at a faster speed than conventional algorithms. Codes are available at this https URL.


GeoSim: Realistic Video Simulation via Geometry-Aware Composition for Self-Driving

Scalable sensor simulation is an important yet challenging open problem for safety-critical domains such as self-driving. Current works in image simulation either fail to be photorealistic or do not model the 3D environment and the dynamic objects within, losing high-level control and physical realism. In this paper, we present GeoSim, a geometry-aware image composition process which synthesizes novel urban driving scenarios by augmenting existing images with dynamic objects extracted from other scenes and rendered at novel poses. Towards this goal, we first build a diverse bank of 3D objects with both realistic geometry and appearance from sensor data. During simulation, we perform a novel geometry-aware simulation-by-composition procedure which 1) proposes plausible and realistic object placements into a given scene, 2) render novel views of dynamic objects from the asset bank, and 3) composes and blends the rendered image segments. The resulting synthetic images are realistic, traffic-aware, and geometrically consistent, allowing our approach to scale to complex use cases. We demonstrate two such important applications: long-range realistic video simulation across multiple camera sensors, and synthetic data generation for data augmentation on downstream segmentation tasks. Please check for high-resolution video results.

Neural Lumigraph Rendering

Novel view synthesis is a challenging and ill-posed inverse rendering problem. Neural rendering techniques have recently achieved photorealistic image quality for this task. State-of-the-art (SOTA) neural volume rendering approaches, however, are slow to train and require minutes of inference (i.e., rendering) time for high image resolutions. We adopt high-capacity neural scene representations with periodic activations for jointly optimizing an implicit surface and a radiance field of a scene supervised exclusively with posed 2D images. Our neural rendering pipeline accelerates SOTA neural volume rendering by about two orders of magnitude and our implicit surface representation is unique in allowing us to export a mesh with view-dependent texture information. Thus, like other implicit surface representations, ours is compatible with traditional graphics pipelines, enabling real-time rendering rates, while achieving unprecedented image quality compared to other surface methods. We assess the quality of our approach using existing datasets as well as high-quality 3D face data captured with a custom multi-camera rig.


Event-Based Synthetic Aperture Imaging With a Hybrid Network

Synthetic aperture imaging (SAI) is able to achieve the see through effect by blurring out the off-focus foreground occlusions and reconstructing the in-focus occluded targets from multi-view images. However, very dense occlusions and extreme lighting conditions may bring significant disturbances to the SAI based on conventional frame-based cameras, leading to performance degeneration. To address these problems, we propose a novel SAI system based on the event camera which can produce asynchronous events with extremely low latency and high dynamic range. Thus, it can eliminate the interference of dense occlusions by measuring with almost continuous views, and simultaneously tackle the over/under exposure problems. To reconstruct the occluded targets, we propose a hybrid encoder-decoder network composed of spiking neural networks (SNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs). In the hybrid network, the spatio-temporal information of the collected events is first encoded by SNN layers, and then transformed to the visual image of the occluded targets by a style-transfer CNN decoder. Through experiments, the proposed method shows remarkable performance in dealing with very dense occlusions and extreme lighting conditions, and high quality visual images can be reconstructed using pure event data.

Energy-Based Learning for Scene Graph Generation

Traditional scene graph generation methods are trained using cross-entropy losses that treat objects and relationships as independent entities. Such a formulation, however, ignores the structure in the output space, in an inherently structured prediction problem. In this work, we introduce a novel energy-based learning framework for generating scene graphs. The proposed formulation allows for efficiently incorporating the structure of scene graphs in the output space. This additional constraint in the learning framework acts as an inductive bias and allows models to learn efficiently from a small number of labels. We use the proposed energy-based framework to train existing state-of-the-art models and obtain a significant performance improvement, of up to 21% and 27%, on the Visual Genome and GQA benchmark datasets, respectively. Furthermore, we showcase the learning efficiency of the proposed framework by demonstrating superior performance in the zero- and few-shot settings where data is scarce.

Learning High Fidelity Depths of Dressed Humans by Watching Social Media Dance Videos

A key challenge of learning the geometry of dressed humans lies in the limited availability of the ground truth data (e.g., 3D scanned models), which results in the performance degradation of 3D human reconstruction when applying to real-world imagery. We address this challenge by leveraging a new data resource: a number of social media dance videos that span diverse appearance, clothing styles, performances, and identities. Each video depicts dynamic movements of the body and clothes of a single person while lacking the 3D ground truth geometry. To utilize these videos, we present a new method to use the local transformation that warps the predicted local geometry of the person from an image to that of another image at a different time instant. This allows self-supervision as enforcing a temporal coherence over the predictions. In addition, we jointly learn the depth along with the surface normals that are highly responsive to local texture, wrinkle, and shade by maximizing their geometric consistency. Our method is end-to-end trainable, resulting in high fidelity depth estimation that predicts fine geometry faithful to the input real image. We demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art human depth estimation and human shape recovery approaches on both real and rendered images.

MP3: A Unified Model To Map, Perceive, Predict and Plan

High-definition maps (HD maps) are a key component of most modern self-driving systems due to their valuable semantic and geometric information. Unfortunately, building HD maps has proven hard to scale due to their cost as well as the requirements they impose in the localization system that has to work everywhere with centimeter-level accuracy. Being able to drive without an HD map would be very beneficial to scale self-driving solutions as well as to increase the failure tolerance of existing ones (e.g., if localization fails or the map is not up-to-date). Towards this goal, we propose MP3, an end-to-end approach to mapless driving where the input is raw sensor data and a high-level command (e.g., turn left at the intersection). MP3 predicts intermediate representations in the form of an online map and the current and future state of dynamic agents, and exploits them in a novel neural motion planner to make interpretable decisions taking into account uncertainty. We show that our approach is significantly safer, more comfortable, and can follow commands better than the baselines in challenging long-term closed-loop simulations, as well as when compared to an expert driver in a large-scale real-world dataset.

NeX: Real-Time View Synthesis With Neural Basis Expansion

We present NeX, a new approach to novel view synthesis based on enhancements of multiplane image (MPI) that can reproduce next-level view-dependent effects – in real time. Unlike traditional MPI that uses a set of simple RGBα planes, our technique models view-dependent effects by instead parameterizing each pixel as a linear combination of basis functions learned from a neural network. Moreover, we propose a hybrid implicit-explicit modeling strategy that improves upon fine detail and produces state-of-the-art results. Our method is evaluated on benchmark forward-facing datasets as well as our newly-introduced dataset designed to test the limit of view-dependent modeling with significantly more challenging effects such as rainbow reflections on a CD. Our method achieves the best overall scores across all major metrics on these datasets with more than 1000× faster rendering time than the state of the art. For real-time demos, visit this https URL


NewtonianVAE: Proportional Control and Goal Identification From Pixels via Physical Latent Spaces

Learning low-dimensional latent state space dynamics models has been a powerful paradigm for enabling vision-based planning and learning for control. We introduce a latent dynamics learning framework that is uniquely designed to induce proportional controlability in the latent space, thus enabling the use of much simpler controllers than prior work. We show that our learned dynamics model enables proportional control from pixels, dramatically simplifies and accelerates behavioural cloning of vision-based controllers, and provides interpretable goal discovery when applied to imitation learning of switching controllers from demonstration.

Fast End-to-End Learning on Protein Surfaces

Proteins’ biological functions are defined by the geometric and chemical structure of their 3D molecular surfaces. Recent works have shown that geometric deep learning can be used on mesh-based representations of proteins to identify potential functional sites, such as binding targets for potential drugs. Unfortunately though, the use of meshes as the underlying representation for protein structure has multiple drawbacks including the need to pre-compute the input features and mesh connectivities. This becomes a bottleneck for many important tasks in protein science.

In this paper, we present a new framework for deep learning on protein structures that addresses these limitations. Among the key advantages of our method are the computation and sampling of the molecular surface on-the-fly from the underlying atomic point cloud and a novel efficient geometric convolutional layer. As a result, we are able to process large collections of proteins in an end-to-end fashion, taking as the sole input the raw 3D coordinates and chemical types of their atoms, eliminating the need for any hand-crafted pre-computed features.

To showcase the performance of our approach, we test it on two tasks in the field of protein structural bioinformatics: the identification of interaction sites and the prediction of protein-protein interactions. On both tasks, we achieve state-of-the-art performance with much faster run times and fewer parameters than previous models. These results will considerably ease the deployment of deep learning methods in protein science and open the door for end-to-end differentiable approaches in protein modeling tasks such as function prediction and design.

Real-Time High-Resolution Background Matting

We introduce a real-time, high-resolution background replacement technique which operates at 30fps in 4K resolution, and 60fps for HD on a modern GPU. Our technique is based on background matting, where an additional frame of the background is captured and used in recovering the alpha matte and the foreground layer. The main challenge is to compute a high-quality alpha matte, preserving strand-level hair details, while processing high-resolution images in real-time. To achieve this goal, we employ two neural networks; a base network computes a low-resolution result which is refined by a second network operating at high-resolution on selective patches. We introduce two largescale video and image matting datasets: VideoMatte240K and PhotoMatte13K/85. Our approach yields higher quality results compared to the previous state-of-the-art in background matting, while simultaneously yielding a dramatic boost in both speed and resolution.

Written on June 23, 2021