CVPR 45 Paper into Best Paper Finals

[ deep-learning  cvpr  ]

极市平台 has created a list of 45 CVPR best papers into the best paper finals. Let’s check out:

Probabilistic Permutation Synchronization using the RiemannianStructure of the Birkhoff Polytope

Tolga Birdal; UmutSimsekli

We present an entirely new geometric and probabilistic approach to synchronization of correspondences across multiple sets of objects or images. In particular, we present two algorithms: (1) Birkhoff-Riemannian L-BFGS for optimizing the relaxed version of the combinatorially intractable cycle consistency loss in a principled manner, (2) Birkhoff-Riemannian Langevin Monte Carlo for generating samples on the Birkhoff Polytope and estimating the confidence of the found solutions. To this end, we first introduce the very recently developed Riemannian geometry of the Birkhoff Polytope. Next, we introduce a new probabilistic synchronization model in the form of a Markov Random Field (MRF). Finally, based on the first order retraction operators, we formulate our problem as simulating a stochastic differential equation and devise new integrators. We show on both synthetic and real datasets that we achieve high quality multi-graph matching results with faster convergence and reliable confidence/uncertainty estimates.

DeepC𝑂^3: Deep Instance Co-segmentation by Co-peak Search and Co-saliencyDetection

Kuang-JuiHsu; Yen-Yu Lin; Yung-Yu Chuang

In this paper, we address a new task called instance cosegmentation. Given a set of images jointly covering object instances of a specific category, instance co-segmentation aims to identify all of these instances and segment each of them, i.e. generating one mask for each instance. This task is important since instance-level segmentation is preferable for humans and many vision applications. It is also challenging because no pixel-wise annotated training data are available and the number of instances in each image is unknown. We solve this task by dividing it into two sub-tasks, co-peak search and instance mask segmentation. In the former sub-task, we develop a CNN-based network to detect the co-peaks as well as co-saliency maps for a pair of images. A co-peak has two endpoints, one in each image, that are local maxima in the response maps and similar to each other. Thereby, the two endpoints are potentially covered by a pair of instances of the same category. In the latter subtask, we design a ranking function that takes the detected co-peaks and co-saliency maps as inputs and can select the object proposals to produce the final results. Our method for instance co-segmentation and its variant for object colocalization are evaluated on four datasets, and achieve favorable performance against the state-of-the-art methods. The source codes and the collected datasets are available at https://github.com/KuangJuiHsu/DeepCO3/.

SelFlow: Self-Supervised Learning ofOptical Flow

PengpengLiu, Michael Lyu, Irwin King, Jia Xu

We present a self-supervised learning approach for optical flow. Our method distills reliable flow estimations from non-occluded pixels, and uses these predictions as ground truth to learn optical flow for hallucinated occlusions. We further design a simple CNN to utilize temporal information from multiple frames for better flow estimation. These two principles lead to an approach that yields the best performance for unsupervised optical flow learning on the challenging benchmarks including MPI Sintel, KITTI 2012 and 2015. More notably, our self-supervised pre-trained model provides an excellent initialization for supervised fine-tuning. Our fine-tuned models achieve state-of-the-art results on all three datasets. At the time of writing, we achieve EPE=4.26 on the Sintel benchmark, outperforming all submitted methods.

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SDRSAC: Semidefinite-Based RandomizedApproach for Robust Point Cloud Registration Without Correspondences

HuuLe; Thanh-Toan Do; Tuan NA Hoang; Ngai-Man Cheung

This paper presents a novel randomized algorithm for robust point cloud registration without correspondences. Most existing registration approaches require a set of putative correspondences obtained by extracting invariant descriptors. However, such descriptors could become unreliable in noisy and contaminated settings. In these settings, methods that directly handle input point sets are preferable. Without correspondences, however, conventional randomized techniques require a very large number of samples in order to reach satisfactory solutions. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to address this problem. In particular, our work enables the use of randomized methods for point cloud registration without the need of putative correspondences. By considering point cloud alignment as a special instance of graph matching and employing an efficient semi-definite relaxation, we propose a novel sampling mechanism, in which the size of the sampled subsets can be larger-than-minimal. Our tight relaxation scheme enables fast rejection of the outliers in the sampled sets, resulting in high-quality hypotheses. We conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate that our approach outperforms other state-of-the-art methods. Importantly, our proposed method serves as a generic framework which can be extended to problems with known correspondences.

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Deep Tree Learning for Zero-Shot FaceAnti-Spoofing

YaojieLiu; Joel Stehouwer; Amin Jourabloo; Xiaoming Liu

Face anti-spoofing is designed to keep face recognition systems from recognizing fake faces as the genuine users. While advanced face anti-spoofing methods are developed, new types of spoof attacks are also being created and becoming a threat to all existing systems. We define the detection of unknown spoof attacks as Zero-Shot Face Anti-spoofing (ZSFA). Previous works of ZSFA only study 1-2 types of spoof attacks, such as print/replay attacks, which limits the insight of this problem. In this work, we expand the ZSFA problem to a wide range of 13 types of spoof attacks, including print attack, replay attack, 3D mask attacks, and so on. A novel Deep Tree Network (DTN) is proposed to tackle the ZSFA. The tree is learned to partition the spoof samples into semantic sub-groups in an unsupervised fashion. When a data sample arrives, being know or unknown attacks, DTN routes it to the most similar spoof cluster, and make the binary decision. In addition, to enable the study of ZSFA, we introduce the first face anti-spoofing database that contains diverse types of spoof attacks. Experiments show that our proposed method achieves the state of the art on multiple testing protocols of ZSFA.

Neural RGB->D Sensing: Depth andUncertainty from a Video Camera

Chao Liu; Jinwei Gu; KihwanKim; Srinivasa G Narasimhan; Jan Kautz

Depth sensing is crucial for 3D reconstruction and scene understanding. Active depth sensors provide dense metric measurements, but often suffer from limitations such as restricted operating ranges, low spatial resolution, sensor interference, and high power consumption. In this paper, we propose a deep learning (DL) method to estimate per-pixel depth and its uncertainty continuously from a monocular video stream, with the goal of effectively turning an RGB camera into an RGB-D camera. Unlike prior DL-based methods, we estimate a depth probability distribution for each pixel rather than a single depth value, leading to an estimate of a 3D depth probability volume for each input frame. These depth probability volumes are accumulated over time under a Bayesian filtering framework as more incoming frames are processed sequentially, which effectively reduces depth uncertainty and improves accuracy, robustness, and temporal stability. Compared to prior work, the proposed approach achieves more accurate and stable results, and generalizes better to new datasets. Experimental results also show the output of our approach can be directly fed into classical RGB-D based 3D scanning methods for 3D scene reconstruction.

Self-Supervised 3D Hand Pose Estimation ThroughTraining by Fitting

Chengde Wan; Thomas Probst; Luc Van Gool; Angela Yao

We present a self-supervision method for 3D hand pose estimation from depth maps. We begin with a neural network initialized with synthesized data and fine-tune it on real but unlabelled depth maps by minimizing a set of datafitting terms. By approximating the hand surface with a set of spheres, we design a differentiable hand renderer to align estimates by comparing the rendered and input depth maps. In addition, we place a set of priors including a data-driven term to further regulate the estimate’s kinematic feasibility. Our method makes highly accurate estimates comparable to current supervised methods which require large amounts of labelled training samples, thereby advancing state-of-theart in unsupervised learning for hand pose estimation.

Neural Illumination: Lighting Predictionfor Indoor Environments

ShuranSong; Thomas Funkhouser

This paper addresses the task of estimating the light arriving from all directions to a 3D point observed at a selected pixel in an RGB image. This task is challenging because it requires predicting a mapping from a partial scene observation by a camera to a complete illumination map for a selected position, which depends on the 3D location of the selection, the distribution of unobserved light sources, the occlusions caused by scene geometry, etc. Previous methods attempt to learn this complex mapping directly using a single black-box neural network, which often fails to estimate high-frequency lighting details for scenes with complicated 3D geometry. Instead, we propose “Neural Illumination” a new approach that decomposes illumination prediction into several simpler differentiable sub-tasks: 1) geometry estimation, 2) scene completion, and 3) LDR-to-HDR estimation. The advantage of this approach is that the sub-tasks are relatively easy to learn and can be trained with direct supervision, while the whole pipeline is fully differentiable and can be fine-tuned with end-to-end supervision. Experiments show that our approach performs significantly better quantitatively and qualitatively than prior work.

Shapes and Context: In-the-wild ImageSynthesis & Manipulation

AayushBansal; Yaser Sheikh; Deva Ramanan

We introduce a data-driven approach for interactively synthesizing in-the-wild images from semantic label maps. Our approach is dramatically different from recent work in this space, in that we make use of no learning. Instead, our approach uses simple but classic tools for matching scene context, shapes, and parts to a stored library of exemplars. Though simple, this approach has several notable advantages over recent work: (1) because nothing is learned, it is not limited to specific training data distributions (such as cityscapes, facades, or faces); (2) it can synthesize arbitrarily high-resolution images, limited only by the resolution of the exemplar library; (3) by appropriately composing shapes and parts, it can generate an exponentially large set of viable candidate output images (that can say, be interactively searched by a user). We present results on the diverse COCO dataset, significantly outperforming learning-based approaches on standard image synthesis metrics. Finally, we explore user-interaction and user-controllability, demonstrating that our system can be used as a platform for user-driven content creation.

SiCloPe: Silhouette-based Clothed People

RyotaNatsume; ShunsukeSaito; Zeng Huang; WeikaiChen; ChongyangMa;Shigeo Morishima; Hao Li

We introduce a new silhouette-based representation for modeling clothed human bodies using deep generative models. Our method can reconstruct a complete and textured 3D model of a person wearing clothes from a single input picture. Inspired by the visual hull algorithm, our implicit representation uses 2D silhouettes and 3D joints of a body pose to describe the immense shape complexity and variations of clothed people. Given a segmented 2D silhouette of a person and its inferred 3D joints from the input picture, we first synthesize consistent silhouettes from novel view points around the subject. The synthesized silhouettes which are the most consistent with the input segmentation are fed into a deep visual hull algorithm for robust 3D shape prediction. We then infer the texture of the subject’s back view using the frontal image and segmentation mask as input to a conditional generative adversarial network. Our experiments demonstrate that our silhouette-based model is an effective representation and the appearance of the back view can be predicted reliably using an image-to-image translation network. While classic methods based on parametric models often fail for single-view images of subjects with challenging clothing, our approach can still produce successful results, which are comparable to those obtained from multi-view input.

A General and Adaptive Robust LossFunction

Jonathan T Barron

We present a generalization of the Cauchy/Lorentzian, Geman-McClure, Welsch/Leclerc, generalized Charbonnier, Charbonnier/pseudo-Huber/L1-L2, and L2 loss functions. By introducing robustness as a continuous parameter, our loss function allows algorithms built around robust loss minimization to be generalized, which improves performance on basic vision tasks such as registration and clustering. Interpreting our loss as the negative log of a univariate density yields a general probability distribution that includes normal and Cauchy distributions as special cases. This probabilistic interpretation enables the training of neural networks in which the robustness of the loss automatically adapts itself during training, which improves performance on learning-based tasks such as generative image synthesis and unsupervised monocular depth estimation, without requiring any manual parameter tuning.

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2.5D Visual Sound

Ruohan Gao; Kristen Grauman

Binaural audio provides a listener with 3D sound sensation, allowing a rich perceptual experience of the scene. However, binaural recordings are scarcely available and require nontrivial expertise and equipment to obtain. We propose to convert common monaural audio into binaural audio by leveraging video. The key idea is that visual frames reveal significant spatial cues that, while explicitly lacking in the accompanying single-channel audio, are strongly linked to it. Our multi-modal approach recovers this link from unlabeled video. We devise a deep convolutional neural network that learns to decode the monaural (single-channel) soundtrack into its binaural counterpart by injecting visual information about object and scene configurations. We call the resulting output 2.5D visual sound—the visual stream helps “lift” the flat single channel audio into spatialized sound. In addition to sound generation, we show the self-supervised representation learned by our network benefits audio-visual source separation. Our video results: this http URL

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[Incremental Object Learning From Contiguous Views]

Stefan Stojanov; Samarth Mishra; Ngoc Anh Thai; Nikhil Dhanda; AhmadHumayun; Linda Smith; Chen Yu; James Rehg

In this work, we present CRIB (Continual Recognition Inspired by Babies), a synthetic incremental object learning environment that can produce data that models visual imagery produced by object exploration in early infancy. CRIB is coupled with a new 3D object dataset, Toys-200, that contains 200 unique toy-like object instances, and is also compatible with existing 3D datasets. Through extensive empirical evaluation of state-of-the-art incremental learning algorithms, we find the novel empirical result that repetition can significantly ameliorate the effects of catastrophic forgetting. Furthermore, we find that in certain cases repetition allows for performance approaching that of batch learning algorithms. Finally, we propose an unsupervised incremental learning task with intriguing baseline results.

Text2Scene: Generating Compositional Scenes from TextualDescriptions

FuwenTan; Song Feng; Vicente Ordonez

In this paper, we propose Text2Scene, a model that generates various forms of compositional scene representations from natural language descriptions. Unlike recent works, our method does NOT use Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Text2Scene instead learns to sequentially generate objects and their attributes (location, size, appearance, etc) at every time step by attending to different parts of the input text and the current status of the generated scene. We show that under minor modifications, the proposed framework can handle the generation of different forms of scene representations, including cartoon-like scenes, object layouts corresponding to real images, and synthetic images. Our method is not only competitive when compared with state-of-the-art GAN-based methods using automatic metrics and superior based on human judgments but also has the advantage of producing interpretable results.

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Relational Action Forecasting

Chen Sun; Abhinav Shrivastava; Carl Vondrick; Rahul Sukthankar;Kevin Murphy; Cordelia Schmid

This paper focuses on multi-person action forecasting in videos. More precisely, given a history of H previous frames, the goal is to detect actors and to predict their future actions for the next T frames. Our approach jointly models temporal and spatial interactions among different actors by constructing a recurrent graph, using actor proposals obtained with Faster R-CNN as nodes. Our method learns to select a subset of discriminative relations without requiring explicit supervision, thus enabling us to tackle challenging visual data. We refer to our model as Discriminative Relational Recurrent Network (DRRN). Evaluation of action prediction on AVA demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed method compared to simpler baselines. Furthermore, we significantly improve performance on the task of early action classification on J-HMDB, from the previous SOTA of 48% to 60%.

Shifting More Attention to Video SalientObject Detection

Deng-Ping Fan;WenguanWang; Ming-Ming Cheng; JianbingShen

The last decade has witnessed a growing interest in video salient object detection (VSOD). However, the research community long-term lacked a well-established VSOD dataset representative of real dynamic scenes with high-quality annotations. To address this issue, we elaborately collected a visual-attention-consistent Densely Annotated VSOD (DAVSOD) dataset, which contains 226 videos with 23,938 frames that cover diverse realistic-scenes, objects, instances and motions. With corresponding real human eye fixation data, we obtain precise ground-truths. This is the first work that explicitly emphasizes the challenge of saliency shift, i.e., the video salient object(s) may dynamically change. To further contribute the community a complete benchmark, we systematically assess 17 representative VSOD algorithms over seven existing VSOD datasets and our DAVSOD with totally ∼84K frames (largest-scale). Utilizing three famous metrics, we then present a comprehensive and insightful performance analysis. Furthermore, we propose a baseline model. It is equipped with a saliencyshift-aware convLSTM, which can efficiently capture video saliency dynamics through learning human attention-shift behavior. Extensive experiments1 open up promising future directions for model development and comparison.

GA-Net:Guided Aggregation Net for End-To-End Stereo Matching

FeihuZhang; Victor Prisacariu; Yang Ruigang; Philip Torr

In the stereo matching task, matching cost aggregation is crucial in both traditional methods and deep neural network models in order to accurately estimate disparities. We propose two novel neural net layers, aimed at capturing local and the whole-image cost dependencies respectively. The first is a semi-global aggregation layer which is a differentiable approximation of the semi-global matching, the second is the local guided aggregation layer which follows a traditional cost filtering strategy to refine thin structures. These two layers can be used to replace the widely used 3D convolutional layer which is computationally costly and memory-consuming as it has cubic computational/memory complexity. In the experiments, we show that nets with a two-layer guided aggregation block easily outperform the state-of-the-art GC-Net which has nineteen 3D convolutional layers. We also train a deep guided aggregation network (GA-Net) which gets better accuracies than state-of-the-art methods on both Scene Flow dataset and KITTI benchmarks.

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ASkeleton-bridged Deep Learning Approach for Generating Meshes of ComplexTopologies from Single RGB Images

JiapengTang; Xiaoguang Han; JunyiPan; KuiJia; Xin Tong

This paper focuses on the challenging task of learning 3D object surface reconstructions from single RGB images. Existing methods achieve varying degrees of success by using different geometric representations. However, they all have their own drawbacks, and cannot well reconstruct those surfaces of complex topologies. To this end, we propose in this paper a skeleton-bridged, stage-wise learning approach to address the challenge. Our use of skeleton is due to its nice property of topology preservation, while being of lower complexity to learn. To learn skeleton from an input image, we design a deep architecture whose decoder is based on a novel design of parallel streams respectively for synthesis of curve- and surface-like skeleton points. We use different shape representations of point cloud, volume, and mesh in our stage-wise learning, in order to take their respective advantages. We also propose multi-stage use of the input image to correct prediction errors that are possibly accumulated in each stage. We conduct intensive experiments to investigate the efficacy of our proposed approach. Qualitative and quantitative results on representative object categories of both simple and complex topologies demonstrate the superiority of our approach over existing ones. We will make our ShapeNet-Skeleton dataset publicly available.

Semantic Image Synthesis withSpatially-Adaptive Normalization

TaesungPark; Ming-Yu Liu; Ting-Chun Wang; Jun-Yan Zhu

We propose spatially-adaptive normalization, a simple but effective layer for synthesizing photorealistic images given an input semantic layout. Previous methods directly feed the semantic layout as input to the deep network, which is then processed through stacks of convolution, normalization, and nonlinearity layers. We show that this is suboptimal as the normalization layers tend to ``wash away’’ semantic information. To address the issue, we propose using the input layout for modulating the activations in normalization layers through a spatially-adaptive, learned transformation. Experiments on several challenging datasets demonstrate the advantage of the proposed method over existing approaches, regarding both visual fidelity and alignment with input layouts. Finally, our model allows user control over both semantic and style as synthesizing images. Code will be available at this https URL .

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ContactDB: Analyzing and Predicting GraspContact via Thermal Imaging

Samarth Brahmbhatt; CusuhHam; Charlie Kemp; James Hays

Grasping and manipulating objects is an important human skill. Since hand-object contact is fundamental to grasping, capturing it can lead to important insights. However, observing contact through external sensors is challenging because of occlusion and the complexity of the human hand. We present ContactDB, a novel dataset of contact maps for household objects that captures the rich hand-object contact that occurs during grasping, enabled by use of a thermal camera. Participants in our study grasped 3D printed objects with a post-grasp functional intent. ContactDB includes 3750 3D meshes of 50 household objects textured with contact maps and 375K frames of synchronized RGB-D+thermal images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first large-scale dataset that records detailed contact maps for human grasps. Analysis of this data shows the influence of functional intent and object size on grasping, the tendency to touch/avoid ‘active areas’, and the high frequency of palm and proximal finger contact. Finally, we train state-of-the-art image translation and 3D convolution algorithms to predict diverse contact patterns from object shape. Data, code and models are available at this https URL.

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RevealingScenes by Inverting Structure from Motion Reconstructions

Francesco Pittaluga; Sanjeev J Koppal; Sing Bing Kang; Sudipta Sinha

Many 3D vision systems localize cameras within a scene using 3D point clouds. Such point clouds are often obtained using structure from motion (SfM), after which the images are discarded to preserve privacy. In this paper, we show, for the first time, that such point clouds retain enough information to reveal scene appearance and compromise privacy. We present a privacy attack that reconstructs color images of the scene from the point cloud. Our method is based on a cascaded U-Net that takes as input, a 2D multichannel image of the points rendered from a specific viewpoint containing point depth and optionally color and SIFT descriptors and outputs a color image of the scene from that viewpoint. Unlike previous feature inversion methods, we deal with highly sparse and irregular 2D point distributions and inputs where many point attributes are missing, namely keypoint orientation and scale, the descriptor image source and the 3D point visibility. We evaluate our attack algorithm on public datasets and analyze the significance of the point cloud attributes. Finally, we show that novel views can also be generated thereby enabling compelling virtual tours of the underlying scene.

A Theory of Fermat Paths for Non-Line-Of-SightShape Reconstruction

ShumianXin; Sotiris Nousias; Kyros Kutulakos; AswinSankaranarayanan;Srinivasa G Narasimhan; IoannisGkioulekas

We present a novel theory of Fermat paths of light between a known visible scene and an unknown object not in the line of sight of a transient camera. These light paths either obey specular reflection or are reflected by the object’s boundary, and hence encode the shape of the hidden object. We prove that Fermat paths correspond to discontinuities in the transient measurements. We then derive a novel constraint that relates the spatial derivatives of the path lengths at these discontinuities to the surface normal. Based on this theory, we present an algorithm, called Fermat Flow, to estimate the shape of the non-line-of-sight object. Our method allows, for the first time, accurate shape recovery of complex objects, ranging from diffuse to specular, that are hidden around the corner as well as hidden behind a diffuser. Finally, our approach is agnostic to the particular technology used for transient imaging. As such, we demonstrate mm-scale shape recovery from picosecond scale transients using a SPAD and ultrafast laser, as well as micron-scale reconstruction from femtosecond scale transients using interferometry. We believe our work is a significant advance over the state-of-the-art in non-line-of-sight imaging.

Relation-Shape Convolutional NeuralNetwork for Point Cloud Analysis

YongchengLiu; Bin Fan; ShimingXiang; ChunhongPan

Point cloud analysis is very challenging, as the shape implied in irregular points is difficult to capture. In this paper, we propose RS-CNN, namely, Relation-Shape Convolutional Neural Network, which extends regular grid CNN to irregular configuration for point cloud analysis. The key to RS-CNN is learning from relation, i.e., the geometric topology constraint among points. Specifically, the convolutional weight for local point set is forced to learn a high-level relation expression from predefined geometric priors, between a sampled point from this point set and the others. In this way, an inductive local representation with explicit reasoning about the spatial layout of points can be obtained, which leads to much shape awareness and robustness. With this convolution as a basic operator, RS-CNN, a hierarchical architecture can be developed to achieve contextual shape-aware learning for point cloud analysis. Extensive experiments on challenging benchmarks across three tasks verify RS-CNN achieves the state of the arts.

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BubbleNets:Learning to Select the Guidance Frame in Video Object Segmentation by DeepSorting Frames

Brent Griffin; Jason J Corso

Semi-supervised video object segmentation has made significant progress on real and challenging videos in recent years. The current paradigm for segmentation methods and benchmark datasets is to segment objects in video provided a single annotation in the first frame. However, we find that segmentation performance across the entire video varies dramatically when selecting an alternative frame for annotation. This paper address the problem of learning to suggest the single best frame across the video for user annotation—this is, in fact, never the first frame of video. We achieve this by introducing BubbleNets, a novel deep sorting network that learns to select frames using a performance-based loss function that enables the conversion of expansive amounts of training examples from already existing datasets. Using BubbleNets, we are able to achieve an 11% relative improvement in segmentation performance on the DAVIS benchmark without any changes to the underlying method of segmentation.

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ImageDeformation Meta-Networks for One-Shot Learning

ZitianChen; Yanwei Fu; Yu-Xiong Wang; Lin Ma; Wei Liu; MartialHebert

Humans can robustly learn novel visual concepts even when images undergo various deformations and lose certain information. Mimicking the same behavior and synthesizing deformed instances of new concepts may help visual recognition systems perform better one-shot learning, i.e., learning concepts from one or few examples. Our key insight is that, while the deformed images may not be visually realistic, they still maintain critical semantic information and contribute significantly to formulating classifier decision boundaries. Inspired by the recent progress of meta-learning, we combine a meta-learner with an image deformation sub-network that produces additional training examples, and optimize both models in an end-to-end manner. The deformation sub-network learns to deform images by fusing a pair of images — a probe image that keeps the visual content and a gallery image that diversifies the deformations. We demonstrate results on the widely used one-shot learning benchmarks (miniImageNet and ImageNet 1K Challenge datasets), which significantly outperform state-of-the-art approaches. Code is available at this https URL.

Estimating 3D Motion and Forces of Person-ObjectInteractions from Monocular Video

ZongmianLi; Jiri Sedlar; Justin Carpentier; Ivan Laptev; NicolasMansard; Josef Sivic

In this paper, we introduce a method to automatically reconstruct the 3D motion of a person interacting with an object from a single RGB video. Our method estimates the 3D poses of the person and the object, contact positions, and forces and torques actuated by the human limbs. The main contributions of this work are three-fold. First, we introduce an approach to jointly estimate the motion and the actuation forces of the person on the manipulated object by modeling contacts and the dynamics of their interactions. This is cast as a large-scale trajectory optimization problem. Second, we develop a method to automatically recognize from the input video the position and timing of contacts between the person and the object or the ground, thereby significantly simplifying the complexity of the optimization. Third, we validate our approach on a recent MoCap dataset with ground truth contact forces and demonstrate its performance on a new dataset of Internet videos showing people manipulating a variety of tools in unconstrained environments.

A Style-Based Generator Architecture forGenerative Adversarial Networks

Tero Karras; SamuliLaine; Timo Aila

We propose an alternative generator architecture for generative adversarial networks, borrowing from style transfer literature. The new architecture leads to an automatically learned, unsupervised separation of high-level attributes (e.g., pose and identity when trained on human faces) and stochastic variation in the generated images (e.g., freckles, hair), and it enables intuitive, scale-specific control of the synthesis. The new generator improves the state-of-the-art in terms of traditional distribution quality metrics, leads to demonstrably better interpolation properties, and also better disentangles the latent factors of variation. To quantify interpolation quality and disentanglement, we propose two new, automated methods that are applicable to any generator architecture. Finally, we introduce a new, highly varied and high-quality dataset of human faces.

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Unsupervised Part-Based Disentangling ofObject Shape and Appearance

Dominik Lorenz; Leonard Bereska; Timo Milbich; Bjorn Ommer

Large intra-class variation is the result of changes in multiple object characteristics. Images, however, only show the superposition of different variable factors such as appearance or shape. Therefore, learning to disentangle and represent these different characteristics poses a great challenge, especially in the unsupervised case. Moreover, large object articulation calls for a flexible part-based model. We present an unsupervised approach for disentangling appearance and shape by learning parts consistently over all instances of a category. Our model for learning an object representation is trained by simultaneously exploiting invariance and equivariance constraints between synthetically transformed images. Since no part annotation or prior information on an object class is required, the approach is applicable to arbitrary classes. We evaluate our approach on a wide range of object categories and diverse tasks including pose prediction, disentangled image synthesis, and video-to-video translation. The approach outperforms the state-of-the-art on unsupervised keypoint prediction and compares favorably even against supervised approaches on the task of shape and appearance transfer.

Pushing the Boundaries of ViewExtrapolation with Multiplane Images

Pratul Srinivasan; Richard Tucker; Jonathan T Barron; RaviRamamoorthi; Ren Ng; Noah Snavely

We explore the problem of view synthesis from a narrow baseline pair of images, and focus on generating high-quality view extrapolations with plausible disocclusions. Our method builds upon prior work in predicting a multiplane image (MPI), which represents scene content as a set of RGB\alpha planes within a reference view frustum and renders novel views by projecting this content into the target viewpoints. We present a theoretical analysis showing how the range of views that can be rendered from an MPI increases linearly with the MPI disparity sampling frequency, as well as a novel MPI prediction procedure that theoretically enables view extrapolations of up to 4\times the lateral viewpoint movement allowed by prior work. Our method ameliorates two specific issues that limit the range of views renderable by prior methods: 1) We expand the range of novel views that can be rendered without depth discretization artifacts by using a 3D convolutional network architecture along with a randomized-resolution training procedure to allow our model to predict MPIs with increased disparity sampling frequency. 2) We reduce the repeated texture artifacts seen in disocclusions by enforcing a constraint that the appearance of hidden content at any depth must be drawn from visible content at or behind that depth. Please see our results video at: this https URL.

Path-Invariant Map Networks

ZaiweiZhang; ZhenxiaoLiang; LemengWu; Xiaowei Zhou; Qixing Huang

Optimizing a network of maps among a collection of objects/domains (or map synchronization) is a central problem across computer vision and many other relevant fields. Compared to optimizing pairwise maps in isolation, the benefit of map synchronization is that there are natural constraints among a map network that can improve the quality of individual maps. While such self-supervision constraints are well-understood for undirected map networks (e.g., the cycle-consistency constraint), they are under-explored for directed map networks, which naturally arise when maps are given by parametric maps (e.g., a feed-forward neural network). In this paper, we study a natural self-supervision constraint for directed map networks called path-invariance, which enforces that composite maps along different paths between a fixed pair of source and target domains are identical. We introduce path-invariance bases for efficient encoding of the path-invariance constraint and present an algorithm that outputs a path-variance basis with polynomial time and space complexities. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on optimizing object correspondences, estimating dense image maps via neural networks, and semantic segmentation of 3D scenes via map networks of diverse 3D representations. In particular, for 3D semantic segmentation, our approach only requires 8% labeled data from ScanNet to achieve the same performance as training a single 3D segmentation network with 30% to 100% labeled data.

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Learning the Depths of Moving People byWatching Frozen People

ZhengqiLi; Tali Dekel; Forrester Cole; Richard Tucker; Ce Liu; BillFreeman; Noah Snavely

We present a method for predicting dense depth in scenarios where both a monocular camera and people in the scene are freely moving. Existing methods for recovering depth for dynamic, non-rigid objects from monocular video impose strong assumptions on the objects’ motion and may only recover sparse depth. In this paper, we take a data-driven approach and learn human depth priors from a new source of data: thousands of Internet videos of people imitating mannequins, i.e., freezing in diverse, natural poses, while a hand-held camera tours the scene. Because people are stationary, training data can be generated using multi-view stereo reconstruction. At inference time, our method uses motion parallax cues from the static areas of the scenes to guide the depth prediction. We demonstrate our method on real-world sequences of complex human actions captured by a moving hand-held camera, show improvement over state-of-the-art monocular depth prediction methods, and show various 3D effects produced using our predicted depth.

Efficient Online Multi-Person 2D PoseTracking with Recurrent Spatio-Temporal Affinity Fields

YaadhavRaaj; Haroon Idrees; GinesHidalgo Martinez; Yaser Sheikh

We present an online approach to efficiently and simultaneously detect and track the 2D pose of multiple people in a video sequence. We build upon Part Affinity Field (PAF) representation designed for static images, and propose an architecture that can encode and predict Spatio-Temporal Affinity Fields (STAF) across a video sequence. In particular, we propose a novel temporal topology cross-linked across limbs which can consistently handle body motions of a wide range of magnitudes. Additionally, we make the overall approach recurrent in nature, where the network ingests STAF heatmaps from previous frames and estimates those for the current frame. Our approach uses only online inference and tracking, and is currently the fastest and the most accurate bottom-up approach that is runtime invariant to the number of people in the scene and accuracy invariant to input frame rate of camera. Running at ∼30 fps on a single GPU at single scale, it achieves highly competitive results on the PoseTrack benchmarks.

Learning to Compose Dynamic TreeStructures for Visual Contexts

KaihuaTang; HanwangZhang; BaoyuanWu; WenhanLuo; Wei Liu

We propose to compose dynamic tree structures that place the objects in an image into a visual context, helping visual reasoning tasks such as scene graph generation and visual Q&A. Our visual context tree model, dubbed VCTree, has two key advantages over existing structured object representations including chains and fully-connected graphs: 1) The efficient and expressive binary tree encodes the inherent parallel/hierarchical relationships among objects, e.g., “clothes” and “pants” are usually co-occur and belong to “person”; 2) the dynamic structure varies from image to image and task to task, allowing more content-/task-specific message passing among objects. To construct a VCTree, we design a score function that calculates the task-dependent validity between each object pair, and the tree is the binary version of the maximum spanning tree from the score matrix. Then, visual contexts are encoded by bidirectional TreeLSTM and decoded by task-specific models. We develop a hybrid learning procedure which integrates end-task supervised learning and the tree structure reinforcement learning, where the former’s evaluation result serves as a self-critic for the latter’s structure exploration. Experimental results on two benchmarks, which require reasoning over contexts: Visual Genome for scene graph generation and VQA2.0 for visual Q&A, show that VCTree outperforms state-of-the-art results while discovering interpretable visual context structures.

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Cascaded Projection: End-to-End NetworkCompression and Acceleration

Breton L Minnehan; Andreas Savakis

We propose a data-driven approach for deep convolutional neural network compression that achieves high accuracy with high throughput and low memory requirements. Current network compression methods either find a low-rank factorization of the features that requires more memory, or select only a subset of features by pruning entire filter channels. We propose the Cascaded Projection (CaP) compression method that projects the output and input filter channels of successive layers to a unified low dimensional space based on a low-rank projection. We optimize the projection to minimize classification loss and the difference between the next layer’s features in the compressed and uncompressed networks. To solve this non-convex optimization problem we propose a new optimization method of a proxy matrix using backpropagation and Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD) with geometric constraints. Our cascaded projection approach leads to improvements in all critical areas of network compression: high accuracy, low memory consumption, low parameter count and high processing speed. The proposed CaP method demonstrates state-of-the-art results compressing VGG16 and ResNet networks with over 4x reduction in the number of computations and excellent performance in top-5 accuracy on the ImageNet dataset before and after fine-tuning.

Taking a Deeper Look at the InverseCompositional Algorithm

ZhaoyangLv; Frank Dellaert; James Rehg; Andreas Geiger

In this paper, we provide a modern synthesis of the classic inverse compositional algorithm for dense image alignment. We first discuss the assumptions made by this well-established technique, and subsequently propose to relax these assumptions by incorporating data-driven priors into this model. More specifically, we unroll a robust version of the inverse compositional algorithm and replace multiple components of this algorithm using more expressive models whose parameters we train in an end-to-end fashion from data. Our experiments on several challenging 3D rigid motion estimation tasks demonstrate the advantages of combining optimization with learning-based techniques, outperforming the classic inverse compositional algorithm as well as data-driven image-to-pose regression approaches.

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Occupancy Networks: Learning 3D Reconstruction in Function Space

Lars M Mescheder; Michael Oechsle; Michael Niemeyer; SebastianNowozin (Google AI Berlin); Andreas Geiger

With the advent of deep neural networks, learning-based approaches for 3D reconstruction have gained popularity. However, unlike for images, in 3D there is no canonical representation which is both computationally and memory efficient yet allows for representing high-resolution geometry of arbitrary topology. Many of the state-of-the-art learning-based 3D reconstruction approaches can hence only represent very coarse 3D geometry or are limited to a restricted domain. In this paper, we propose Occupancy Networks, a new representation for learning-based 3D reconstruction methods. Occupancy networks implicitly represent the 3D surface as the continuous decision boundary of a deep neural network classifier. In contrast to existing approaches, our representation encodes a description of the 3D output at infinite resolution without excessive memory footprint. We validate that our representation can efficiently encode 3D structure and can be inferred from various kinds of input. Our experiments demonstrate competitive results, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for the challenging tasks of 3D reconstruction from single images, noisy point clouds and coarse discrete voxel grids. We believe that occupancy networks will become a useful tool in a wide variety of learning-based 3D tasks.

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Geometry-Consistent Generative AdversarialNetworks for One-Sided Unsupervised Domain Mapping

Unsupervised domain mapping aims to learn a function to translate domain X to Y by a function GXY in the absence of paired examples. Finding the optimal GXY without paired data is an ill-posed problem, so appropriate constraints are required to obtain reasonable solutions. One of the most prominent constraints is cycle consistency, which enforces the translated image by GXY to be translated back to the input image by an inverse mapping GYX. While cycle consistency requires the simultaneous training of GXY and GY X, recent studies have shown that one-sided domain mapping can be achieved by preserving pairwise distances between images. Although cycle consistency and distance preservation successfully constrain the solution space, they overlook the special properties that simple geometric transformations do not change the semantic structure of images. Based on this special property, we develop a geometry-consistent generative adversarial network (GcGAN), which enables one-sided unsupervised domain mapping. GcGAN takes the original image and its counterpart image transformed by a predefined geometric transformation as inputs and generates two images in the new domain coupled with the corresponding geometry-consistency constraint. The geometry-consistency constraint reduces the space of possible solutions while keep the correct solutions in the search space. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons with the baseline (GAN alone) and the state-of-the-art methods including CycleGAN and DistanceGAN demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

Convolutional Mesh Regression forSingle-Image Human Shape Reconstruction

Nikos Kolotouros; Georgios Pavlakos; Kostas Daniilidis

This paper addresses the problem of 3D human pose and shape estimation from a single image. Previous approaches consider a parametric model of the human body, SMPL, and attempt to regress the model parameters that give rise to a mesh consistent with image evidence. This parameter regression has been a very challenging task, with model-based approaches underperforming compared to nonparametric solutions in terms of pose estimation. In our work, we propose to relax this heavy reliance on the model’s parameter space. We still retain the topology of the SMPL template mesh, but instead of predicting model parameters, we directly regress the 3D location of the mesh vertices. This is a heavy task for a typical network, but our key insight is that the regression becomes significantly easier using a Graph-CNN. This architecture allows us to explicitly encode the template mesh structure within the network and leverage the spatial locality the mesh has to offer. Image-based features are attached to the mesh vertices and the Graph-CNN is responsible to process them on the mesh structure, while the regression target for each vertex is its 3D location. Having recovered the complete 3D geometry of the mesh, if we still require a specific model parametrization, this can be reliably regressed from the vertices locations. We demonstrate the flexibility and the effectiveness of our proposed graph-based mesh regression by attaching different types of features on the mesh vertices. In all cases, we outperform the comparable baselines relying on model parameter regression, while we also achieve state-of-the-art results among model-based pose estimation approaches.

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Neural Rerendering in the Wild

Moustafa Meshry; Ricardo Martin-Brualla; Noah Snavely; Hugues Hoppe;SamehKhamis; Rohit Pandey; Dan B Goldman

We explore total scene capture – recording, modeling, and rerendering a scene under varying appearance such as season and time of day. Starting from internet photos of a tourist landmark, we apply traditional 3D reconstruction to register the photos and approximate the scene as a point cloud. For each photo, we render the scene points into a deep framebuffer, and train a neural network to learn the mapping of these initial renderings to the actual photos. This rerendering network also takes as input a latent appearance vector and a semantic mask indicating the location of transient objects like pedestrians. The model is evaluated on several datasets of publicly available images spanning a broad range of illumination conditions. We create short videos demonstrating realistic manipulation of the image viewpoint, appearance, and semantic labeling. We also compare results with prior work on scene reconstruction from internet photos.

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Content Authentication for Neural ImagingPipelines: End-to-end Optimization of Photo Provenance in Complex DistributionChannels

Pawel Korus; Nasir Memon

Forensic analysis of digital photo provenance relies on intrinsic traces left in the photograph at the time of its acquisition. Such analysis becomes unreliable after heavy post-processing, such as down-sampling and re-compression applied upon distribution in the Web. This paper explores end-to-end optimization of the entire image acquisition and distribution workflow to facilitate reliable forensic analysis at the end of the distribution channel. We demonstrate that neural imaging pipelines can be trained to replace the internals of digital cameras, and jointly optimized for high-fidelity photo development and reliable provenance analysis. In our experiments, the proposed approach increased image manipulation detection accuracy from 45% to over 90%. The findings encourage further research towards building more reliable imaging pipelines with explicit provenance-guaranteeing properties.

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Reinforced Cross-Modal Matching andSelf-Supervised Imitation Learning for Vision-Language Navigation

Xin Wang; QiuyuanHuang; AsliCelikyilmaz; JianfengGao; DinghanShen;Yuan-Fang Wang; William Yang Wang; Lei Zhang

Vision-language navigation (VLN) is the task of navigating an embodied agent to carry out natural language instructions inside real 3D environments. In this paper, we study how to address three critical challenges for this task: the cross-modal grounding, the ill-posed feedback, and the generalization problems. First, we propose a novel Reinforced Cross-Modal Matching (RCM) approach that enforces cross-modal grounding both locally and globally via reinforcement learning (RL). Particularly, a matching critic is used to provide an intrinsic reward to encourage global matching between instructions and trajectories, and a reasoning navigator is employed to perform cross-modal grounding in the local visual scene. Evaluation on a VLN benchmark dataset shows that our RCM model significantly outperforms previous methods by 10% on SPL and achieves the new state-of-the-art performance. To improve the generalizability of the learned policy, we further introduce a Self-Supervised Imitation Learning (SIL) method to explore unseen environments by imitating its own past, good decisions. We demonstrate that SIL can approximate a better and more efficient policy, which tremendously minimizes the success rate performance gap between seen and unseen environments (from 30.7% to 11.7%).

FilterReg: Robust and EfficientProbabilistic Point-Set Registration using Gaussian Filter and TwistParameterization

Wei Gao; Russ Tedrake

Probabilistic point-set registration methods have been gaining more attention for their robustness to noise, outliers and occlusions. However, these methods tend to be much slower than the popular iterative closest point (ICP) algorithms, which severely limits their usability. In this paper, we contribute a novel probabilistic registration method that achieves state-of-the-art robustness as well as substantially faster computational performance than modern ICP implementations. This is achieved using a rigorous yet computationally-efficient probabilistic formulation. Point-set registration is cast as a maximum likelihood estimation and solved using the EM algorithm. We show that with a simple augmentation, the E step can be formulated as a filtering problem, allowing us to leverage advances in efficient Gaussian filtering methods. We also propose a customized permutohedral filter for improved efficiency while retaining sufficient accuracy for our task. Additionally, we present a simple and efficient twist parameterization that generalizes our method to the registration of articulated and deformable objects. For articulated objects, the complexity of our method is almost independent of the Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs), which makes it highly efficient even for high DOF systems. The results demonstrate the proposed method consistently outperforms many competitive baselines on a variety of registration tasks.

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Locating Objects Without Bounding Boxes

Javier Ribera; David Güera; Yuhao Chen; Edward Delp

Recent advances in convolutional neural networks (CNN) have achieved remarkable results in locating objects in images. In these networks, the training procedure usually requires providing bounding boxes or the maximum number of expected objects. In this paper, we address the task of estimating object locations without annotated bounding boxes which are typically hand-drawn and time consuming to label. We propose a loss function that can be used in any fully convolutional network (FCN) to estimate object locations. This loss function is a modification of the average Hausdorff distance between two unordered sets of points. The proposed method has no notion of bounding boxes, region proposals, or sliding windows. We evaluate our method with three datasets designed to locate people’s heads, pupil centers and plant centers. We outperform state-of-the-art generic object detectors and methods fine-tuned for pupil tracking.

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DeepSDF: Learning Continuous SignedDistance Functions for Shape Representation

Jeong Joon Park; Peter R Florence; Julian Straub; Richard Newcombe;Steven Lovegrove

Computer graphics, 3D computer vision and robotics communities have produced multiple approaches to representing 3D geometry for rendering and reconstruction. These provide trade-offs across fidelity, efficiency and compression capabilities. In this work, we introduce DeepSDF, a learned continuous Signed Distance Function (SDF) representation of a class of shapes that enables high quality shape representation, interpolation and completion from partial and noisy 3D input data. DeepSDF, like its classical counterpart, represents a shape’s surface by a continuous volumetric field: the magnitude of a point in the field represents the distance to the surface boundary and the sign indicates whether the region is inside (-) or outside (+) of the shape, hence our representation implicitly encodes a shape’s boundary as the zero-level-set of the learned function while explicitly representing the classification of space as being part of the shapes interior or not. While classical SDF’s both in analytical or discretized voxel form typically represent the surface of a single shape, DeepSDF can represent an entire class of shapes. Furthermore, we show state-of-the-art performance for learned 3D shape representation and completion while reducing the model size by an order of magnitude compared with previous work.

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CollaGAN: Collaborative GAN for MissingImage Data Imputation

DongwookLee; Junyoung Kim; Won-Jin Moon; Jong Chul Ye

In many applications requiring multiple inputs to obtain a desired output, if any of the input data is missing, it often introduces large amounts of bias. Although many techniques have been developed for imputing missing data, the image imputation is still difficult due to complicated nature of natural images. To address this problem, here we proposed a novel framework for missing image data imputation, called Collaborative Generative Adversarial Network (CollaGAN). CollaGAN converts an image imputation problem to a multi-domain images-to-image translation task so that a single generator and discriminator network can successfully estimate the missing data using the remaining clean data set. We demonstrate that CollaGAN produces the images with a higher visual quality compared to the existing competing approaches in various image imputation tasks.

Written on August 12, 2019