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DNS is hierarchical, with a few authoritative servers at the top level. Lower level DNS servers cache mappings, which could become stale due to DNS propagation delays. DNS results can also be cached by your browser or OS for a certain period of time, determined by the time to live (TTL). Check following image as an example

A Domain Name System (DNS) translates a domain name such as www.example.com to an IP address.


  • NS record (name server) - Specifies the DNS servers for your domain/subdomain.
  • MX record (mail exchange) - Specifies the mail servers for accepting messages.
  • A record (address) - Points a name to an IP address.
  • CNAME (canonical) - Points a name to another name or CNAME (example.com to www.example.com) or to an A record.

How is traffic routed:

  • Weighted round robin
    • Prevent traffic from going to servers under maintenance
    • Balance between varying cluster sizes
    • A/B testing
  • Latency-based
  • Geolocation-based
Written on March 30, 2019